A technique is one whose solutions are sufficiently complex, precise or "technical", individual and/or instrumental to be separated from the person or instrument that operates or uses them. (If not separated from the human body, it is called a body technique, the main "artistic" production of which is performance. L.[3] The technicality is given by the use of measurement, of dimensional data, as opposed to "artistic", i.e. informal, unmeasured solutions without this. Measurement is closely related to activity, as the word engineer indicates, while in English the solution for the production of an engine was the integrating identifier of the field of knowledge, hence engineering, mechanics, or any "technical technological intervention based on measurement, mostly standardized, standardized, i.e. a production that can be repeated, combined with others and imitated.

The most important part of technology as a knowledge or knowledge base is know-how, i.e. simply the description of knowledge that usually provides a new or novel figuratio bt solution to a technical problem, and therefore has a significant material value and can be sold or bought as a commodity. Know-how is therefore a critical asset of a business, a money-making activity, an intangible intellectual asset, a right of property value, which the right holder has a vested interest in protecting. Hence the confidential, proprietary nature of technological knowledge and information, as opposed to other technical sciences (e.g. mechanics, thermodynamics, etc.) which are already common or generic.

General description of materials technologies

In everyday life, the concept of technology is related to manufacturing and fabrication. An illustration of this is when someone likes a cake and asks for the recipe. The recipe contains the sequence of steps to be taken and the ingredients needed. The technology is therefore the order of preparation.

Even in a more complex process, the sequence of steps and operations makes the description of the technology transparent. Each technology requires (1) the material to be converted, (2) the means to convert it, and (3) the energy and information required for the conversion. In traditional material technologies (bread baking, cloth sewing), man was the link between the means of successive use, and man was both the source of energy and the source of information. Therefore, in a simple technology description, the main actors are the material, the tools and the type of operation (e.g. grinding).


In such a description of technology, one can use a fundamental principle from physics: the principle of describing motion in a forced path.[4] In this formulation, the protagonist of the technological process is the material. This model can also be applied to a series of operations in an industrial plant: the material moves along figuratio bt a forced path. This forced path is represented by the machines for transforming the material (in the past it was a series of tools). The machines also break down the production process into a sequence of operations.

The sequence of changes of state undergone by each machine (the sequence of operations) also characterises the technological process. Each of the three process characteristics: the sequence of operations, the sequence of material states and the sequence of machines, gives a picture of the production process separately, but their inclusion together in parallel allows a qualitative and quantitative description of the technologies to figuratio bt be given.

Technological sectors

Steel production






Production of basalt wool

Sugar production



Film technology


Metal detecting

Metal Technology

Mechanical engineering technology

Rubber Manufacturing

Audio engineering

Information Technology

Military science

Chemical technology[5]

Petroleum technology[6]

Kitchen technology[7]

Light metals metallurgy


Honey production

Technical universities



Nuclear Technology

Printing Technology

Porcelain Manufacturing

Shield technology

Radio technology

Computer technology

Brick making

History figuratio bt of technology



Glass production

Video and cinema technology


Technique (Greek for art, craft) is an ambiguous word.

In the most general sense, the rational, conscious use of the most suitable and economical means and materials for an intended purpose.

In a somewhat narrower sense, the set of tools and processes required for an artistic or industrial activity. Production processes are also called technology in engineering.

Engineering is also often referred to figuratio bt collectively as technology. (e.g. "science and technology").

Technology and sustainability

Environmental thinkers attach great importance to the fact that technology increases the efficiency and reach of human action. Hans Jonas states that new technical solutions create a new ethical situation that cannot be ignored[1].

Jacques Ellul, in his 1977 study, considers that technology has become a dominant part of the human environment, with the socializing effect that man no longer "sees out" of his technical environment, but sees reality through it, and thus becomes incapable of criticizing technology as an environment. According to Ellul, technology as an environment is also changing education: "The humanities have been pushed back in favour of science and technology education, because the environment in which the student is immersed is not human but technical." "Technology is not only limiting and simplifying, figuratio bt but it 'liberates' in such a way that man becomes more and more deeply part of the technical system."[2]

The Russian theologian Berdyaev compares our relationship to technology (which extends the limits of human capacity and thus in many cases causes serious environmental problems) to our relationship to Providence "and sometimes it seems that machines and technology have become the sole, exclusive objects of man's faith."[3]

Story from

The first known shift register was built in an early computer called Colossus in the early 1940s. The Colossus was a code-breaking machine used by the British counterintelligence figuratio bt during World War II. The computer was built from electron tubes and the shift register inside was a five-stage (5-bit) shift register.

Shift register types


The SISO (Serial-in, serial-out) shift register is a serial-in, serial-out operation.

The signal (1 bit) arriving at the first stage of the cascaded flip-flops is shifted one stage to the right for each clock signal that is advanced. After the last flip-flop is output, the signal is lost.

The internal states of a four-stage (4-bit) shift register, after each step, if a bit of 1 is input before the first clock signal followed by a signal of 0 bits:

0000, 1000, 0100, 0010, 0001, 0000

The internal states of a 4-step (4-bit) shift register, after each step, if a bit with a constant value of 1 is input:

0000, 1000, 1100, 1110, 1111

The output of the shift register is the original signal input after the fourth step (clock signal). Thus, this configuration can also be used as a delay, the input signal is output after four clock pulses.


SIPO (Serial-in, parallel-out) is a shift register with serial-in, parallel-out operation. This configuration allows serial-to-parallel conversion.

4-bit SIPO


The PISO (Parallel-in, Serial-out) is a shift register with parallel-in, serial-out operation. This configuration also allows parallel-to-serial conversion. The configuration in the figure shows a four-element (4-bit) PISO shift register. The inputs are D1 - D4. The shift register is made up of four D-flip-flops, stepping to figuratio bt the positive rising edge of the clock signal. The output of the shift register is the Q output of the last D flip-flop.

4-bit PISO

The animation shows the operation (internal state) of a 4-bit PISO shift register. The steps of the operation are: flip-flop clear, write to buffers in parallel, shift.

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